Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the state's second most-populous county.
Located along Lake Erie, the city proper has a population of 388,072, making Cleveland the 51st largest city in the United States, and the second-largest city in Ohio after Columbus. Greater Cleveland ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and ranks 15th in the United States.
The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (100 kilometers) west of the Pennsylvania state border. It was founded by European Americans in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. It became a manufacturing center due to its location on the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy has diversified sectors that include manufacturing, financial services, healthcare, and biomedical. Cleveland is also home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Residents of Cleveland are called "Clevelanders". Cleveland has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City".
Cleveland is home to a number of leading hospital systems, several of which are in University Circle. Most notable is the world-renowned Cleveland Clinic, which is supplemented by University Hospitals and its Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital. On the city's West Side is the main campus of the MetroHealth System, which operates a level one trauma center in northeast Ohio, and has various locations throughout greater Cleveland. Cleveland's Global Center for Health Innovation opened with 235,000 square feet (21,800 m2) of display space for healthcare companies across the world. To take advantage of the proximity of universities and other medical centers in Cleveland, the Veterans Administration moved the regions VA hospital from suburban Brecksville to a new facility in University Circle.
Consent decree with Department of Justice
In December 2014, the United States Department of Justice announced the findings of a two-year investigation, prompted by a request from Mayor Frank Jackson, to determine whether the Cleveland Police engaged in a pattern of excessive force. After reviewing nearly 600 use-of-force incidents from 2010 to 2013, the investigators found systemic patterns, insufficient accountability mechanisms, inadequate training, ineffective policies, and inadequate community engagement. As a result of the Justice Department report, the city agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force.
The consent decree, released on May 26, 2015, mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify and support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure the decree's goals are met. At least some of the provisions have been identified as unique to Cleveland. On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. approved and signed the consent decree, beginning the process of police reform.
Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire, established in 1863. The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations throughout the city in five battalions. Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief.
The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Angelo Calvillo.
Emergency Medical Services
Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own municipal third-service EMS division. Cleveland EMS is the primary provider of Advanced Life Support and ambulance transport within the city of Cleveland, while Cleveland Fire assists by providing fire response medical care. Although a merger between the fire and EMS departments was proposed in the past, the idea was subsequently abandoned.
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How did Ohio earn the grade of C? We examined the state taxes based on how age friendly they are. Ohio has a state sales tax of 5.75%. Of particular interest is that Ohio does not have taxes on social security. There are no estate taxes. There are no taxes imposed on inheritance. Ohio has an effective property tax rate of 1.56%. Weighing these taxes and other taxes most likely to impact the aging population is how Ohio earned its state tax grade of C.
Learn more about taxes in Ohio